Gout Causes and Foods and Diet for Gout
Gout occurs when too much uric acid builds up in the blood and uric acid crystals precipitate in the cooler parts of the body such as the joints of the hands or feet. High levels of uric acid may also build up as lumps under the skin called tophi, or as kidney stones. Uric Acid is a waste product of the oxidation of purines which are constituents of nucleic acids such as Dna. Uric acid is normally excreted in the urine to keep up a concentration of uric acid in the blood vessels of around 4 mg/dL. When the focus exceeds 7 mg/dL, crystals of monosodium urate start to form in the tissues. This condition is known as hyperuricemia.
What are the symptoms of Gout? The symptoms of gout are redness of a joint, associated with inflammation, stiffness, and intense pain. Many people experience their first gout attack in the big toe, but some other joints such as the ankles, wrists, fingers, or arms may be affected. The pain may be so severe in which even the pressure of bed sheets may be unbearable. A gout attack can be brought on by alcohol, or foods full of purines for example shellfish, caviar, sardines, anchovies, meats, or organ meats that are commonly used in sausages. A study over a 12-year period of 47,000 adult men revealed that those who ate the most red meat or seafood elevated their risk of gout by as much as 50%. 6 Many gout attacks progress within a few days, even without treatment, and they may not recur for many months or years.
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How will be Gout Diagnosed? Gout is clinically determined based on family history, specific signs and symptoms, and laboratory tests. Diagnosis of gout is confirmed by the determination of high levels of uric acid in the blood, monosodium urate crystals in the fluid of an inflamed joint, more than one attack of serious arthritis, and the involvement of only one joint such as the toe, ankle, or knee.
How is Gout treated? Because gout episodes are so painful, patients demand some kind of gout treatment, despite the fact that the treatments for gout are not very effective and have undesirable side effects. The most common treatments include the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, indomethacin and naproxen. Aspirin is not used as it aggravates hyperuricemia by improving uric acid retention. 17 These medicines can cause stomach pain, bleeding and ulcers, and over and above a certain dosage, they do not provide additional relief.
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Corticosteroids, Like Prednisone, are Prescribed for Severe Cases of Gout
Although these kinds of steroids can provide relief, they also have serious side effects, including thinning bones, poor wound healing, along with a weakened immune system. Cortisone injections into an affected joint are generally limited to no more than three annually because of the side effects.
How to Recognize Gout Symptoms Foot Care
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Allopurinol, probenecid, and colchicine are sometimes prescribed in daily doses to reduce the risk or lessen the severity of future episodes. Allopurinol blocks the formation of uric acid, probenecid decreases the frequency of assaults of gout simply by increasing the kidney's excretion of uric acid, and colchicine may relieve swelling and help alleviate problems with the frequency of gout attacks. These drugs speed the elimination of uric acid from the body, and they also slow down the rate at which it is created, but they may cause nausea or skin rashes as side effects.
Some new drugs for the treatment of gout include febuxostat (Uloric) which has been around since 2009 for the chronic management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout. It is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that works well by decreasing the amount of uric acid made in the body. Febuxostat must be taken daily and it may take several months before it begins to prevent gout attacks. As a side effect, febuxostat may cause increased levels of liver enzymes in the blood that may be a sign of liver damage.
Pegloticase (Krystexxa) is a urate oxidase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uric acid to allantoin which is five to ten times more disolveable than uric acid. In 2010, the FDA approved pegloticase for treatment of gout patients who can not tolerate or do not respond to conventional therapy. Peglioticase is actually given every two weeks by intravenous infusion. Nausea, vomiting and allergic reactions have been reported as side effects.